The following material may be protected under copyright. It is used here for archival, educational, and research purposes, not for commercial gain or public distribution. He is completely amoral in that he will rob, borrow, beg or steal from anybody and everybody to get the work done.
His father, a carpenter, wished him to follow his trade, Transition in william blake s poems his success in mathematics at Lancaster and Heversham grammar schools won him an exhibition a type of scholarship at Trinity College, Cambridge In he was awarded the Chancellor's Gold Medal for poetry. He was professor of mineralogy from to and Knightbridge Professor of Philosophy then called "moral theology and casuistical divinity" from to History and development of science[ edit ] William Whewell, c.
While the History traced how each branch of the sciences had evolved since antiquity, Whewell viewed the Philosophy as the "Moral" of the previous work as it sought to extract a universal theory of knowledge through history. In the latter, he attempted to follow Francis Bacon 's plan for discovery.
He examined ideas "explication of conceptions" and by the "colligation of facts" endeavoured to unite these ideas with the facts and so construct science. Whewell's three steps of induction[ edit ] Whewell analysed inductive reasoning into three steps: The selection of the fundamental idea, such as space, number, cause, or likeness resemblance ; The formation of the conception, or more special modification of those ideas, as a circle, a uniform force, etc.
Upon these follow special methods of induction applicable to quantity: In Philosophy of the Inductive Sciences Whewell was the first to use the term " consilience " to discuss the unification of knowledge between the different branches of learning.
Opponent of English empiricism[ edit ] Here, as in his ethical doctrine, Whewell was moved by opposition to contemporary English empiricism.
Following Immanuel Kanthe asserted against John Stuart Mill the a priori nature of necessary truthand by his rules for the construction of conceptions he dispensed with the inductive methods of Mill. Whewell's neologisms[ edit ] As stated, one of Whewell's greatest gifts to science was his wordsmithing.
He often corresponded with many in his field and helped them come up with new terms for their discoveries. In fact, Whewell came up with the term scientist itself inand it was first published in Whewell's anonymous review of Mary Somerville 's On the Connexion of the Physical Sciences published in the Quarterly Review.
Work in college administration[ edit ] Statue of Whewell by Thomas Woolner in Trinity College Chapel, Cambridge Whewell was prominent not only in scientific research and philosophy, but also in university and college administration. His first work, An Elementary Treatise on Mechanicscooperated with those of George Peacock and John Herschel in reforming the Cambridge method of mathematical teaching.
His work and publications also helped influence the recognition of the moral and natural sciences as an integral part of the Cambridge curriculum. In general, however, especially in later years, he opposed reform: He opposed the appointment of the University Commissionand wrote two pamphlets Remarks against the reform of the university He stood against the scheme of entrusting elections to the members of the senate and instead, advocated the use of college funds and the subvention of scientific and professorial work.
He was elected Master of Trinity College, Cambridge inand retained that position until his death in The Whewell Professorship of International Law and the Whewell Scholarships were established through the provisions of his will.
He is best known for his writings on Gothic architecturespecifically his book, Architectural Notes on German Churches first published in In this work, Whewell established a strict nomenclature for German Gothic churches and came up with a theory of stylistic development.
His work is associated with the "scientific trend" of architectural writers, along with Thomas Rickman and Robert Willis.
He paid from his own resources for the construction of two new courts of rooms at Trinity College, Cambridge, built in a Gothic style. The two courts were completed in and posthumously inand are now collectively named Whewell's Court in the singular.
Whewell's works in philosophy and morals[ edit ] Portrait by James Lonsdale Between and Whewell produced various works on the philosophy of morals and politicsthe chief of which, Elements of Morality, including Polity, was published in The peculiarity of this work—written from what is known as the intuitional point of view —is its fivefold division of the springs of action and of their objects, of the primary and universal rights of man personal security, property, contract, family rights and governmentand of the cardinal virtues benevolencejusticetruthpurity and order.
Among Whewell's other works—too numerous to mention—were popular writings such as the third Bridgewater Treatise Astronomy and General Physics considered with reference to Natural Theologyand the essay, Of the Plurality of Worldsin which he argued against the probability of life on other planetsand also the Platonic Dialogues for English Readers —the Lectures on the History of Moral Philosophy in Englandthe essay, Of a Liberal Education in General, with particular reference to the Leading Studies of the University of Cambridgethe important edition and abridged translation of Hugo GrotiusDe jure belli ac pacisand the edition of the Mathematical Works of Isaac Barrow The title pages of On the Origin of Species open with a quotation from Whewell's Bridgewater Treatise about science founded on a natural theology of a creator establishing laws:English literature: English literature, body of written works produced in the English language by inhabitants of the British Isles from the 7th century to the present.
Biography Early years. Of Anglo-Irish descent, William Butler Yeats was born at Sandymount in County Dublin, Ireland.
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