The term racism is a noun describing the state of being racist, i.
Results also showed that youth from higher socioeconomic status families were more likely to have perceived racism.
Furthermore, the effects of racism were lessened by nurturant parenting and having prosocial peers. In one of the few articles reporting on racism in Latino children, mainland Puerto Rican youth in Grades 1 to 3 who perceived discrimination reported higher levels of depressive symptoms, school stress, and behavioral adjustment.
Another study in a mostly Mexican-American sample of Latino adolescents found that self-esteem partially mediated the effects of perceived discrimination on depressive symptoms.
Another study with Native American children in fifth through eighth grade found that perceived discrimination was associated with increased internalizing behaviors withdrawn, somatic complaints, anxiety, and depression sub-scales on the Achenbach youth self-report instrumentafter controlling for age, gender, and family income.
A study of 71 black youth aged 14 to 18 years demonstrated that increased distress over racist experiences resulted in greater internalizing and externalizing coping strategies, whereas greater perceived control over racist experiences was associated with greater use of social support and problem-solving coping strategies after controlling for gender, grade, socioeconomic status, and family structure.
A follow-up study showed that early perceived discrimination at ages 10 to 12 continued to be associated with drug use at 5-year follow-up.
In one study, effects were strongest for black women with higher education levels more than 12 years and those between the ages of 20 and For example, Collins et al 53 studied a small sample of low-income African-American mothers and found an association between self-reported episodes of racism and very low birth weight.
Mothers were asked about racial discrimination in 5 domains: The odds ratio of very low birth weight for lifetime exposure to racial discrimination was 1. There was also a dose-response effect; the odds ratio for very low birth weight and racism in one or more domain was 1.
These effects were strongest in women aged 20 to 29 years, as well as among women with more than 12 years of formal education.
Likewise, the risk of low-birth weight deliveries was reduced from 4. Interestingly, the small literature in children and adolescents does not show similar effects.
In teens, perceptions of unfair treatment due to race was not associated with elevated BP readings. Chen and Matthews 66 studied cardiovascular reactivity in low socioeconomic status children to ascertain the role of coping strategies during stressful situations.
They found that African-American children were more likely to appraise ambiguous social scenarios as containing hostile intent, and this in turn was related to increased cardiovascular reactivity.
Other areas of health and health care were found to be understudied, so one can not yet make inferences regarding the associations between racism and these conditions.
The study of racism and child health is a new and emerging area of investigation. All reviewed studies were all published between the years to Even within this small group of studies, certain characteristics and trends became evident: Limited Population Groups The literature is heavily weighted toward the study of racism in only one particular minority group: Only 3 studies were conducted exclusively with Latinos, 333738 one with Native Americans, 46 and one with Korean American youth.
The paucity of studies with Latinos is surprising given that this is the fastest growing minority group in the United States. Although all minority groups share common experiences resulting from social stratification processes inherent in modern Western society, it can also be argued that the experiences of racism may differ in diverse groups.Essays on The study of racism in literature The The study of racism in literature is one of the most popular assignments among students' documents.
If you are stuck with writing or missing ideas, scroll down and find inspiration in the best samples. But I always moved on, quickly. To feel personally insulted when reading old books struck me as provincial, against the spirit of literature. For the purposes of reading an English novel from , I thought, you had to be an upper-class white guy from You had to be a privileged person, because books always were written by and for privileged people.
Course Summary English English Literature has been evaluated and recommended for 3 semester hours and may be transferred to over 2, colleges and universities.
Race and race relations are prominent areas of study in sociology and economics. Much of the sociological literature focuses on white racism. Some of the earliest sociological works on racism were penned by sociologist W.
E. B. Du Bois, the first African American to earn a . Race and race relations are prominent areas of study in sociology and economics. Much of the sociological literature focuses on white racism. Some of the earliest sociological works on racism were penned by sociologist W.
E. B. Du Bois, the first African American to . Race, Racism, and Discrimination: Bridging Problems, Methods, and Theory in Social Psychological Research* LAWRENCE D. BOBO CYBELLE FOX Harvard University the survey-based literature can be found in Sears, Hetts et al. (), Bobo (), and Krysan ().