During the final stages of World War II inthe United States conducted atomic raids on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the first on August 6,and the second on August 9, These two events were the only times nuclear weapons have been used in combat. The worst air raid to occur during the process was not the nuclear attacks, but the Operation Meetinghouse raid on Tokyo.
To be a superpower, a nation needs to have a strong economy, an overpowering military, immense international political power and, related to this, a strong national ideology.
It was this war, and its results, that caused each of these superpowers to experience such a preponderance of power. Before the war, both nations were fit to be described as great powers, but it would be erroneous to say that they were superpowers at that point.
To understand how the second World War impacted these nations so greatly, we must examine the causes of the war.
The United States gained its strength in world affairs from its status as an economic power. In the years before the war, America was the world's largest producer.
From these situations, similar foreign policies resulted from widely divergent origins.
Roosevelt's isolationism emerged from the wide and prevalent domestic desire to remain neutral in any international conflicts. It commonly widely believed that Americans entered the first World War simply in order to save industry's capitalist investments in Europe.
Whether this is the case or not, Roosevelt was forced to work with an inherently isolationist Congress, only expanding its horizons after the bombing of Pearl Harbour. He signed the Neutrality Act ofmaking it illegal for the United States to ship arms to the belligerents of any conflict.
The act also stated that belligerents could buy only non-armaments from the US, and even these were only to be bought with cash.
Stalin wanted to consolidate Communist power and modernise the country's industry. The Soviet Union was committed to collective action for peace, as long as that commitment did not mean that the Soviet Union would take a brunt of a Nazi attack as a result.
Examples of this can be seen in the Soviet Unions' attempts to achieve a mutual assistance treaty with Britain and France. These treaties, however, were designed more to create security for the West, as opposed to keeping all three signatories from harm.
At the same time, Stalin was attempting to polarise both the Anglo-French, and the Axis powers against each other. The important result of this was the Nazi-Soviet non-aggression pact, which partitioned Poland, and allowed Hitler to start the war.
Another side-effect of his policy of playing both sides was that it caused incredible distrust towards the Soviets from the Western powers after This was due in part to the fact that Stalin made several demands for both influence in the Dardanelles, and for Bulgaria to be recognised as a Soviet dependant.
The seeds of superpowerdom lie here however, in the late thirties. Overy has written that "stability in Europe might have been achieved through the existence of powers so strong that they could impose their will on the whole of the international system, as has been the case since Britain and France were in imperial decline, and more concerned about colonial economics than the stability of Europe.
Both imperial powers assumed that empire-building would necessarily be an inevitable feature of the world system. German aggression could have been stifled early had the imperial powers had acted in concert.
The memories of World War One however, were too powerful, and the general public would not condone a military solution at that point. The aggression of Germany, and to a lesser extent that of Italy, can be explained by this decline of imperial power. They were simply attempting to fill the power vacuum in Europe that Britain and France unwittingly left.
After the economic crisis of the 's, Britain and France lost much of their former international standing--as the world markets plummeted; so did their relative power.
The two nations were determined to maintain their status as great powers however, without relying on the US or the USSR for support of any kind.
They went to war only because further appeasement would have only served to remove from them their little remaining world standing and prestige. The creation of a non-aggression pact between the Soviet Union and Germany can be viewed as an example of imperial decline as well.
Stalin explained the fact that he reached a rapprochement with Germany, and not one with Great Britain by stating that "the USSR and Germany had wanted to change the old equilibrium England and France wanted to preserve it. Germany also wanted to make a change in the equilibrium, and this common desire to get rid of the old equilibrium had created the basis for the rapprochement with Germany.
Such benefits as wartime economic gains, vastly increased internal markets from conquered territory, and increased access to resources and the means of industrial production would help fuel any nation's drive for superpowerdom.
One of two ways war could have been avoided was for the United States or Russia to have taken powerful and vigorous action against Germany in Divine, holds that "superpowerdom gives a nation the framework by which a nation is able to extend globally the reach of its power and influence.
The question must then be raised, were the United States and Russia superpowers even then, could coercive, unilateral actions taken by them have had such significant ramifications for the international order? It must be concluded that, while they were not yet superpowers, they certainly were great powers, with the incredible amount of influence that accompanies such status.
Neither the United States nor the Soviet Union possessed the international framework necessary to be a super power at this time. It is likely that frameworks similar to Nato or the Warsaw Pact could have been developed, but such infrastructures would have necessarily been on a much smaller scale, and without influence as the proposed Anglo-American English speaking world pact was.Feb 01, · (a) Who were the superpowers that emerged after World War 2?
(b) What were the main differences between them?Status: Resolved. Mar 27, · The rapid emergence of the Cold War between the two superpowers created a competition for the support of what came to be known as ‘Third World’ countries, with liberation movements frequently backed by the Soviet Union and the USA and the ‘West’ more generally seeking to defuse them by making concessions to demands for independence.
This implies that the two superpowers existed as two superpowers before the war, but only after the war did their existence as superpowers become apparent. I suspect that the actual intention of the sentence is to say that before the war there were more superpowers, or a different set of superpowers, or possibly no superpowers, and after the.
It is often wondered how the superpowers achieved their position of dominance. It seems that the maturing of the two superpowers, Russia and the United States, can be traced to World War attheheels.com be a superpower, a nation needs to have a strong economy, an overpowering military, immense international political power and, related to this, a strong national ideology.
International Relations in the 20th Century. STUDY. PLAY. Give two reasons why fascism became popular in Europe in 's and 30's. promised jobs, law and order. claimed to stop spread of communism. What did politicians in europe realise after the end of WW2?
Government and the Economy since World War II Robert Higgs endless era of national emergency, to which governments at all levels, but most strikingly during the period of recurrent national emergencies ().
Amidst the storms of two world wars and a deep, .