Urdu literature originated some time around the 14th century in present-day North India among the sophisticated gentry of the courts. The continuing traditions of Islam and patronisations of foreign culture centuries earlier by Muslim rulers, usually of Turkic or Afghan descent, marked their influence on the Urdu language given that both cultural heritages were strongly present throughout Urdu territory. The Urdu language, with a vocabulary almost evenly split between Sanskrit -derived Prakrit and Arabo - Persian words, was a reflection of this cultural amalgamation.
Courtesy of the Pakistan Embassy, Washington, D. It contains a section of the ancient Silk Road and the Khyber Pass, the famous passageway that has brought outside influences into the otherwise isolated subcontinent.
Lofty peaks such as K2 and Nanga Parbatin the Pakistani-administered region of Kashmirpresent a challenging lure to mountain climbers. Along the Indus River, the artery of the country, the ancient site of Mohenjo-daro marks one of the cradles of civilization.
Established as a parliamentary democracy that espoused secular ideas, the country has experienced repeated military coups, and religion—that is to say, adherence to the values of Sunni Islam—has increasingly become a standard by which political leaders are measured.
In various parts of the country, instances of ethnic, religious, and social conflict have flared up from time to time, often rendering those areas virtually ungovernable by the central authorities, and acts of violence against religious minorities have increased.
At the time of partition inas many as 10 million Muslim refugees fled their homes in India and sought refuge in Pakistan—about 8 million in West Pakistan.
Virtually an equal number of Hindus and Sikhs were uprooted from their land and familiar surroundings in what became Pakistan, and they fled to India. Unlike the earlier migrations, which took centuries to unfold, these chaotic population transfers took hardly one year.
The resulting impact on the life of the subcontinent has reverberated ever since in the rivalries between the two countries, and each has continued to seek a lasting modus vivendi with the other. Pakistan and India have fought four wars, three of which —49,and were over Kashmir.
Since both countries have also possessed Literature review on education in pakistan weapons, further heightening tensions between them.
Land Pakistan is bounded by Iran to the west, Afghanistan to the northwest and north, China to the northeast, and India to the east and southeast. The coast of the Arabian Sea forms its southern border. Since the Kashmir region, along the western Himalayashas been disputed, with Pakistan, India, and China each controlling sections of the territory.
The remainder of Pakistani-administered Kashmir consists of Gilgit and Baltistan, known collectively as the Northern Areas.
Relief and drainage Pakistan is situated at the western end of the great Indo-Gangetic Plain. Of the total area of the country, about three-fifths consists of rough mountainous terrain and plateaus, and the remaining two-fifths constitutes a wide expanse of level plain.
The land can be divided into five major regions: Within each major division there are further subdivisions, including a number of desert areas. Pakistan The Himalayan and Karakoram ranges The Himalayas, which have long been a physical and cultural divide between South and Central Asiaform the northern rampart of the subcontinent, and their western ranges occupy the entire northern end of Pakistan, extending about miles km into the country.
Spreading over Kashmir and northern Pakistan, the western Himalayan system splits into three distinct ranges, which are, from south to north, the Pir Panjal Rangethe Zaskar Rangeand the Ladakh Range. Farther north is the Karakoram Rangewhich is a separate system adjoining the Himalayas.
This series of ranges varies in elevation from roughly 13, feet 4, metres to higher than 19, feet 6, metres above sea level.
These include such towering peaks as Nanga Parbat 26, feet [8, metres] and K2also called Godwin Austen 28, feet [8, metres]in the Northern Areas. Several important rivers flow from, or through, the mountains of Kashmir into Pakistan.
South of the Pir Panjal is the northwestern extension of the Shiwalik Range there rising to about to feet [ to metres]which extend over the southern part of the Hazara and Murree hills and include the hills surrounding Rawalpindi and neighbouring Islamabad. The highway, a marvel of modern technology, carries considerable commerce between the two countries but has promoted little cultural exchange.
The northern mountain barrier influences the precipitation pattern in Pakistan by intercepting monsoon rain-bearing winds from the south. Melting snow and glacial meltwater from the mountains also feed the rivers, including the Indus, which emerge from the east-west-aligned ranges to flow southward.
The many glaciers in this region, particularly those of the Karakoram Range, are among the few in the world to have grown in size since the late 20th century.
The northern and western regions of the country are subject to frequent seismic activity—the natural consequence of a geologically young mountain system. Minor earth tremors are common throughout the region.
However, a number of earthquakes have been severe and highly destructive, given the fact that many buildings are poorly constructed and that those in the mountains are often precipitously perched.
Historically recent major quakes in Pakistan include those in,and The latter two were in the far north of the country, and the quake—centred in the mountainous border region of the North-West Frontier Province now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Azad Kashmir—killed some 80, to 90, people and left the entire area devastated.
The population in this inhospitable northern region is generally sparse, although in a few favoured places it is dense. In most of the tiny settlements of this region, the usual crop is barley; fruit cultivation, especially apricots, is of special importance. Timber, mainly species of pineis found in some parts, but its occurrence varies with precipitation and elevation.
Many slopes have been denuded of cover by excessive timber felling and overgrazing. The Hindu Kush and the western mountains In far northern Pakistan the Hindu Kush branches off southwestward from the nodal orogenic uplift known as the Pamir Knot.
The ridges of the Hindu Kush generally trend from northeast to southwest, while those of the Karakorams run in a southeast-northwest direction from the knot.Dear Apple and Mia, to develop your conceptual framework, as this article suggests, you will need to read relevant literature about your topic.
Pakistan: Pakistan, populous and multiethnic country of South Asia.
Having a predominately Indo-Iranian speaking population, Pakistan has historically and culturally been associated with its neighbours Iran, Afghanistan, and India. Since Pakistan and India achieved independence in , Pakistan .
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Working conditions in public hospitals have been of great concern to health care personnel worldwide. However, from an international perspective, there is no evidence of literature review that has been conducted on this important topic.