I believe there is a place for textbooks, facts, and even lectures in the history classroom. The standards movement has resulted in state standards for United States history and world history which are quite content specific, requiring students to develop higher-order understanding based on a foundation of factual knowledge.
The Enlightenment's highest achievement was the development of a tightly organized philosophy, purportedly based on scientific principles and contradicting every argument for absolute monarchy as it generally existed in the eighteenth century.
The case against absolutism, as presented by the philosophes and their foreign sympathizers, condemned divine-right monarchy, aristocracy by birth, state churches, and mercantilism.
Each was found to be irrational, unnatural, and therefore basically evil. Basic Arguments In The Case One fundamental indictment against absolutism was its lack of human concern.
Critics argued that maintaining order by forcing or frightening people into conformity, destroyed the innate human potential for moral judgment. The social environment was responsible for corrupting people, who were naturally good. Human beings could be perfected by removing the corrupting influences.
For example, Beccaria insisted that unjust and irrational laws should be changed, so that they would teach morality and not just punish those who were caught. Prisons, argued the English reformer John Howard should rehabilitate criminals, not brutalize them. These and other eighteenth-century rationalists believed that humanitarian reforms, in conformity with nature's laws, would lead toward unlimited human progress.
Their message was voiced effectively by Condorcet, the most idealistic of the philosophes, in his Progress of the Human Mind Behind Condorcet's humanitarianism was a passionate faith in human freedom. Enlightenment thinkers saw the arbitrary policies of absolute monarchs as violations of innate rights, required by human nature.
The most fundamental part of this nature was human reason, the means by which people learned and realized their potential. Learning, as described by Locke in his Essay Concerning Human Understandingconsisted entirely of knowledge gained through the senses, interpreted by reason, and stored in memory.
There were no internal sources of knowledge; indeed, the mind at birth was like blank pieces of paper, upon which experience would write.
The individual, in short, was primarily a thinking and judging mechanism, which required maximum freedom to operate effectively. The best government, therefore, was the government that ruled least. This argument for human freedom was the heart of the anti-absolutist case.
The preceding century of religious wars had produced many contending sects and shaken the unquestioning faith of medieval times. Overseas expansion and the resulting contacts with non-Christian religions contributed to the same result.
State churches, often used by kings to support corrupt regimes, also undermined respect for traditional Christianity. Added to all of this was the impact of the Newtonian revolution as well as earlier religious persecution of scientists. Between the orderly universe described by scientists and the relative chaos of human society, the contrast was indeed shocking.
It led to serious reconsideration of religious ideas and institutions. For such early thinkers as Descartes, the major theoretical problem was reconciling the mechanistic, self-regulating universe with the traditional belief in an all-powerful God.
Descartes solved this problem, for himself, by dividing all realities between the realms of mind and matter.Philosophy, which literally means "the love of wisdom," is one of the oldest disciplines in history.
There are many ideas about philosophers and what they do. Some have even considered the field to be a science that deals with logic and reason. Either way, many famous philosophers have made their contributions known to. A Manifesto Against the Enemies of Modernity.
by James A. Lindsay and Helen Pluckrose; Posted on August 22, February 2, ; This document is very long and detailed so a brief bulleted summary is provided below for those who don’t have the hour it takes for a careful read. On July 23rd, Donald Trump’s red-white-and-navy-blue Boeing touched down in Laredo, Texas, where the temperature was climbing to a hundred and four degrees.
In , the Times introduced. Sharp fluctuations of moral absolutism and moral relativism are also among the attitudes of intellectuals revealed in this study. The moral absolutism is reserved for the stern judgments of their own society, while a pragmatic moral relativism appears when they give the benefit of the doubt to certain dictators and their political systems as long as they find them fundamentally praiseworthy.
Idealism - Basic questions and answers: In defining philosophical idealism in its historical development as a technical metaphysical doctrine, three most-difficult and irreducible questions arise.
From the efforts to answer those questions there has been created an extensive literature that is the corpus of philosophical idealism. The first of the three questions .
THE GREAT ADVENTURE:PRESENT-DAY STUDIES IN AMERICAN NATIONALISM [Essay] 7. LINCOLN AND FREE SPEECH. PATRIOTISM means to stand by the attheheels.com does not mean to stand by the President or any other public official save exactly to the degree in .