December 26, First decision: February 10, Revised:
The electrokinetically-altered fluids or therapeutic compositions and methods include electrokinetically-altered ionic aqueous fluids optionally in combination with other therapeutic agents. Particular aspects provide for modulating e.
Other embodiments include particular routes of administration or formulations for the electrokinetically-altered fluids and therapeutic compositions.
Additional aspects relate to combination therapies. This destruction of neurons eventually leads to dysfunction and disabilities. Often times inflammation is found to be a component of neurodegenerative diseases and adds to the pathogenesis of the neurodegeneration Minagar, et al. Collectively, these diseases comprise the art-recognized inflammatory neurodegenerative diseases.
Neuroinflammation may occur years prior to any considerable loss of neurons in some neurodegenerative disorders Tansey et. Many different types of immune cells, including macrophages, neutrophils, T cells, astrocytes, and microglia, can contributed to the pathology of immune-related diseases, like Multiple Sclerosis M.
More specifically, research groups have noted that in MS the injury to myelin is mediated by an inflammatory response Ruffini et. One research group has developed genetic models to test CNS inflammation and its effects in MS through the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis EAE.
In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokines specifically TNF- alpha were found to be elevated in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALS.
These inflammatory neurodegenerative diseases may, therefore, be effectively treated by anti-inflammatory drugs. Inflammatory neurodegenerative diseases include but are not limited to: Multiple sclerosis MS is a chronic inflammatory neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system CNS that affects approximately 1,people all over the world, in particular affects young adults Pugliatti et al.
MS is characterized pathologically by demyelination of neural tissue, which results clinically in one of many forms of the disease, ranging from benign to chronic-progressive patterns of the disease state.
More specifically, five main forms of multiple sclerosis have been described: Throughout the course of the disease there is a progressive destruction of the myelin sheath surrounding axons. Since intact myelin is essential in the preservation of axonal integrity Dubois-Dalcq et al.
Interestingly, MS progression can differ considerably in patients with some having slight disability even after several decades of living with the disease, while others becoming dependent upon a wheelchair only a few years after being diagnosis.
The etiology of MS currently is unknown, but studies examining genetic evidence, the molecular basis, and immunology factors are beginning to elucidate the course of the disease and the mechanism by which demylination occurs.
In genetic analyses, some reports have indicated that related individuals have higher incidence of MS when compared to normal population 0.
Several groups have utilized linkage and association studies to discover the genes responsible for this heritability and found that the relative risk of being affected by MS is fold higher to those carrying a the major histocompatibility complex MHC class II allele of the human leukocyte antigen HLA -DR2 allele.
Other genes have been identified that associate with MS, but a much lower risk. In addition, identification of genes that are differentially expressed in MS patients suffering from MS compared to healthy individuals has been attempted. Much of what these experiments discovered was expected, including the finding that anti- inflammatory, anti-apoptotic genes are down-regulated and pro-inflammatory, proliferation genes are up-regulated.
Surprising results include identification of potential novel targets for therapeutic application such as osteopontin Chabas et al.
In general, it is believed that much of the damage occurring to myelin sheaths and axons during an episode of MS happens through autoreactive T cell response which produces an inflammatory response including the secretion of proinflammatory e. Th1 and Th17 cytokines Prat et al.
In general, these drugs suppress the immune system in a nonspecific fashion and only marginally limit the overall progression of disease. Thus, there exists a need for developing therapeutic strategies to better treat MS. Glatiramer acetate is composed of glutamic acid, lysine, alanine, and tyrosine as a random polymer.
Glatiramer acetate has limited effectiveness and significant side effects, for example, lump at the site of injection, chills, fever, aches, shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat and anxiety.page 1 1 the origin and role of meiosis specific adenine nucleotide translocase 4 by chae ho lim a dissertation presented to the graduate school of the university of.
An antisense oligonucleotide is a short strand of deoxyribonucleotide analogue that hybridizes with the complementary mRNA in a sequence-specific manner via Watson-Crick base pairing. Antisense therapy is a form of treatment for genetic disorders or infections.
A Sequence for Academic Writing SEVENTH EDITION Laurence Behrens University of California, Santa Barbara Leonard J. Rosen Bentley University Hudson Street, NY NY View Michael Valitsky’s profile on LinkedIn, the world's largest professional community.
Michael has 5 jobs listed on their profile. See the complete profile on LinkedIn and discover Michael’s connections and jobs at similar attheheels.com: Principal Scientist at BrainLabs, . A Sequence for Academic Writing, brief rhetoric, focuses on the key strategies that any academic writer needs to know -- summary, synthesis, analysis, and attheheels.com: $ Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration Results: Eighty-seven responses were received, for a return rate of 43%.
81% of the respondents were in an academic setting. The majority did not have a genetic counsellor or geneticist (GC/G) in their clinic but could readily make an appointment locally (%), % had a GC/G.