United Kingdom[ edit ] Many British publications follow some of these guidelines in abbreviation: For the sake of convenience, many British publications, including the BBC and The Guardianhave completely done away with the use of full stops or periods in all abbreviations. Ms or Mr though these would usually have not had full stops—see above Capt, Prof, etc. A notable exception is The Economist which writes "Mr F.
History[ edit ] Abbreviated writing, using sigla, arose partly from the limitations of the workable nature of the materials stonemetalparchmentetc. Thus, lapidariesengraversand copyists made the most of the available writing space.
Scribal abbreviations were infrequent when writing materials were plentiful, but by the 3rd and 4th centuries AD, writing materials were scarce and costly.
Additionally, in this period shorthand entered general usage. The earliest known Western shorthand system was that employed by the Greek historian Xenophon in the memoir of Socratesand it was called notae socratae. The notation was akin to modern stenographic writing systems.
It used symbols for whole words or word roots and grammatical modifier marks, and it could be used to write either whole passages in shorthand or only certain words. In medieval times, the symbols to represent words were widely used; and the initial symbols, as few as according to some sources, were increased to 14, by the Carolingianswho used them in conjunction with other abbreviations.
However, the alphabet notation had a "murky existence" C. Burnettas it was often associated with witchcraft and magic, and it was eventually forgotten. Interest in it was rekindled by the Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket in the 12th century and later in the 15th century, when it was rediscovered by Johannes Trithemiusabbot of the Benedictine abbey of Sponheim, in a psalm written entirely in Tironian shorthand and a Ciceronian lexicon, which was discovered in a Benedictine monastery notae benenses.
Sigla were mostly used in lapidary inscriptions; in some places and historical periods such as medieval Spain scribal abbreviations were overused to the extent that some are indecipherable.
Forms[ edit ] The abbreviations were not constant but changed from region to region. Scribal abbreviations increased in usage and reached their height in the Carolingian Renaissance 8th to 10th centuries. The most common abbreviations, called notae communes, were used across most of Europe, but others appeared in certain regions.
In legal documents, legal abbreviations, called notae juris, appear but also capricious abbreviations, which scribes manufactured ad hoc to avoid repeating names and places in a given document. Latin abbreviations of praedicatorum, quoque, conversis, and quorum.
In epigraphycommon abbreviations were comprehended in two observed classes: The abbreviation of a word to its initial letter; The abbreviation of a word to its first consecutive letters or to several letters, from throughout the word. Both forms of abbreviation are called "suspensions" as the scribe suspends the writing of the word.
A separate form of abbreviation is by "contraction" and was mostly a Christian usage for sacred words, Nomina Sacra ; non-Christian sigla usage usually limited the number of letters the abbreviation comprised and omitted no intermediate letter.
One practice was rendering an overused, formulaic phrase only as a siglum: According to Trabe, these abbreviations are not really meant to lighten the burden of the scribe but rather to shroud in reverent obscurity the holiest words of the Christian religion.
Still, when occasion required referring to three or four persons, the complex doubling of the final consonant yielded to the simple plural siglum.
To that effect, a vinculum overbar above a letter or a letter-set also was so used, becoming a universal medieval typographic usage. Besides the tilde and macron marks, above and below letters, modifying cross-bars and extended strokes were employed as scribal abbreviation marks, mostly for prefixes and verb, noun and adjective suffixes.
The typographic abbreviations should not be confused with the phrasal abbreviations: Moreover, besides scribal abbreviations, ancient texts also contained variant typographic characters, including ligatures e.
The "u" and "v" characters originated as scribal variants for their respective letters, likewise the "i" and "j" pair. Modern publishers printing Latin-language works replace variant typography and sigla with full-form Latin spellings; the convention of using "u" and "i" for vowels and "v" and "j" for consonants is a late typographic development.
Since the establishment of movable-type printing in the 15th century, founders have created many such ligatures for each set of record type font to communicate much information with fewer symbols. Moreover, during the Renaissance 14th to 17th centurieswhen Ancient Greek language manuscripts introduced that tongue to Western Europeits scribal abbreviations were converted to ligatures in imitation of the Latin scribal writing to which readers were accustomed.style in technical writing.
Julie, I'm your practice teacher, you're my student. And I have to tell you to refrain from using terms such as "loony", "fruitcake" "nutcase" and "one sandwich short . When writing for a reader, try and avoid it as far as possible – unless that particular style of writing is required. In formal writing – be it business, medical, legal . The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
use of units with numbers. All numerical values that have dimensions must have their units specified. In general, the units must follow the numerical value every time. However, in a table of numbers, the units may be specified at the top of .
When writing for a reader, try and avoid it as far as possible – unless that particular style of writing is required.
In formal writing – be it business, medical, legal . by Chelsea Lee. Asking whether you should use contractions in formal academic writing is sort of like asking whether you should wear a . A or An..
Use an in place of a when it precedes a vowel sound, not just a attheheels.com means it's “an honor” (the h is silent), but “a UFO” (because it's pronounced yoo eff oh). Most of the confusion with a or an arises from acronyms and other abbreviations: some people think it's wrong to use an in front of an abbreviation like “MRI” because “an” can only go before vowels.
Writing for professional purposes is likely to require the formal style, although individual communications can use the informal style once you are familiar with the recipient.
Note that emails tend to lend themselves to a less formal style than paper-based communications, but you . Jan 29, · Read to know the difference between writing informal & formal letters to avoid mistakes.
Two major approach of writing English for IELTS General Test – Formal & Informal. Read to know the difference between writing informal & formal letters to avoid mistakes. In Informal Writing, you can use abbreviations as well as contractions.
But, you Author: Krina Patel.