Or Is It Wicca? The Start Of Debate Is Witchcraft a religion or not is an argument that has long existed and will not be resolved by this article. There are groups of people who believe it is a religion, there are those who don't.
Beliefs about the mark on witches[ edit ] Oil painting "Examination of a witch" by Tompkins Harrison Matteson The witches' teat is associated with the perversion of maternal power by witches in early modern England.
Once the devilish half-breed has been conceived, the cambion may only feed upon this teat and no other. Folklore suggests that on the 7th day of the 7th week of consecutive feeding upon the teat, the cambion would grow to adulthood immediately and begin wreaking havoc with a range of demonic powers inherited from its supernatural father.
However, should the ritual be disrupted during the day period, the process has to restart all over again.
It was believed that the marks of a witch were applied to "secret places": All witches and sorcerers were believed to have a witches' mark waiting to be found. A person accused of witchcraft was brought to trial and carefully scrutinized. Experts, or inquisitorsfirmly believed that a witches' mark could be easily identified from a natural mark; in light of this belief, protests from the victims that the marks were natural were often ignored.
Marks on buildings[ edit ] Main article: Apotropaic mark Apotropaic marksmade to keep witches out of buildings, are also referred to as witch marks or witches' marks. Other types of mark include the intertwined letters V and M for the protector, the Virgin Maryand crisscrossing lines to confuse any spirits that might try to follow them.
Pins were driven into scars, calluses and thickened areas of skin: Customarily, this routine was performed in front of a large crowd. If after stripping and shaving, the accused witch was found to have no likely blemishes, pins were simply driven into her body until an insensitive area was found.
She died in prison, no doubt from injuries. These individuals were given the title "witch finders". Perhaps the most famous witch finder was a man named Matthew Hopkins c.
Hopkins' writings reached the height of their popularity during the English Civil War circaand contributed to the use of the witches' mark as evidence of guilt. The record shows that two Scottish women disguised themselves as men, known as "Mr.
Peterson", so they, too, could become witch-finders. The first camp, sometimes called "Murray-ists", supports British anthropologist Margaret Murray 's theory of the witches' mark. Historical discussion of the witches' mark began after the publication of Murray's books on the subject; Witchcult in Western Europe and The God of the Witches in the early 20th century.
Her writings argue strongly that Devil's marks were in actuality tattoos that identified members of an organized pagan religion that she believed flourished in the Middle Ages. Murray is also credited with the renewed interest in neo-pagan religions, and later, Wiccawhich occurred after the publications of her books.
However, today her controversial ideas have been largely rejected by scientists and academics due to the lack of any evidence.
From a feminist perspective[ edit ] Another camp believes that the witches' mark is a gendered aspect of the witch-hunts. In Anne Barstow's book, Witchcraze: Barstow sees the witch hunts of Europe as an attempt to control women, and the witches' mark as an excuse to control women's bodies through violence and sadism.
The searching of women's bodies for the witches' mark gives insight into the reality of a woman's position during this time: Fear of maternal power theory[ edit ] English Literature professor Deborah Willis, who writes from a feminist perspective, asserts that the witch-hunts resulted from a societal fear of maternal power.
Willis argues that the people of early modern Europe all had similar fears about malevolent motherly nurturing, and that the witches' teat is a manifestation of that fear. Willis asserts that the witches' teat is a perversion of the female power to nourish and strengthen young.
Drymon that Lyme disease is a diagnosis for both witches and witch affliction, finding that many of the afflicted and accused in Salem and elsewhere lived in areas that were tick-risky, had a variety of red marks and rashes that looked like bite marks on their skin, and suffered from neurological and arthritic symptoms.
The appearance of the witches' mark in Europe is only noted after Colombian contact with the New World in and may be the result of the transfer of a virulent form of borrelia infection from America into Europe, especially in areas under the control of the Spanish Empireincluding parts of the Rhine River Valley that are now in Germany.Salem Witch Trials •Many believed devil worked with witches in the real world •1st accusation when young girls listen to tales of voodoo from a black servant, began behaving oddly •Older women became targets •Young accusers were poor from the west, accused the .
Search for the Devil's or witch's marks formed an important part of the examination of suspected witches in the 17th century.
These skin marks were insensitive to piercing by a needle and did not bleed. Ideas about them varied between countries. In England and America, the mark was regarded as . Superstition Witchcraft In The 17th Century The Church Religion was a powerful influence to the everyday individual, the Church often encouraged people to hunt out witches, as they also believed that witches were 'servants of the devil'.
The townspeople were appalled but not surprised: Belief in witchcraft was widespread throughout 17th-century America and Europe. Town officials convened a court to hear the charges of witchcraft.
Within a month, six women were convicted and hanged. While the witch trials had begun to fade out across much of Europe by the midth century, they became more prominent in the American colonies.
An estimated 75% to 85% of those accused in the early modern witch trials were women, and there is certainly evidence of misogyny on the part of those persecuting witches. Eliot, a Puritan minister in 17th-century Massachusetts, was known as the “Apostle of the Indians.” Few subjects in early modern history have received more attention from scholars than Puritanism, and historians of early America have focused the most intense .