An unusually monumental animal painting that challenges the hierarchy of genres. A distinctive feature of the period, compared to earlier European painting, was the limited number of religious paintings. Dutch Calvinism forbade religious paintings in churches, and though biblical subjects were acceptable in private homes, relatively few were produced.
National Portrait Gallery, London Evelyn wrote, "pictures are very common here [in the Netherlands], there being scarce an ordinary tradesman whose house is not decorated with them.
In the middle of the seventeenth century some Dutch homes had thirty to fifty paintings per room, rooms which, it should be noted, were not all that spacious.
The idea that the Netherlands abounded with good painting "must have become commonplace at the time. Quite likely a proud awareness of this phenomenon was already imbedded in the self-image of the prosperous Dutch burgher.
While Mundy's and Evelyn's comments were likely based on fact, it is important to note that the pictures they mentioned varied greatly in quality and price.
A cheap engraving, for example, could be had for about a third of the price of a small fish or flower still life painting—and for about a seventh of the price of a more elaborate, high-finish banketje still life. On the other hand, a cutting-edge fijnschilder fine painting work of Gerrit Dou might be sold for 1, guilders or more, the cost of a comfortable Dutch house.
Camphuyzen…was roused because the art of painting was so well-liked that one could say nothing against it: In the works of most artists both style and content reflected taste not of the wealthy and sophisticated, but of people in moderate circumstances.
For this, international fashion could be largely ignored. This allowed the full development of native artistic species.
What, if any, effect did the unprecedented availability of artworks to a broad range of the population have on the perception of art itself? Though art had not degenerated into an overlooked object of utility, the differentiation between paintings and other objects was somehow weakened.
Unlike their colleagues from the south where history painting had originated, Dutch painters no longer encumbered by theoretical obligations of morally uplifting contents or divine spirituality. And perhaps, this unassuming character of Dutch art, Rather than assuming the traditional guise of the learned gentleman artist that was fostered by Renaissance topoi, many painters presented themselves in a more unseemly light.
|Women, Art, and Art History: Gender and Feminist Analyses - Art History - Oxford Bibliographies||Women, Art, and Art History: Gender is to be understood as a system of power, named initially patriarchal and also theorized as a phallocentric symbolic order.|
Dropping the noble robes of the pictor doctus, they smoked, drank and chased women. Dutch and Flemish artists explored a new mode of self-expression in dissolute self-portraits, embracing the many behaviors that art theorists and the culture at large disparaged.
Dissolute self-portraits stand apart from what was expected of a conventional self-portrait, yet they were nonetheless appreciated and valued in Dutch culture and in the art market.
Dissolute self-portraits also reflect and respond to a larger trend regarding artistic identity in the seventeenth century, notably, the stereotype "hoe schilder hoe wilder" [the more of a painter, the wilder he is] that posited Dutch and Flemish artists as intrinsically unruly characters prone to prodigality and dissolution.
Artists embraced this special identity, which in turn granted them certain freedoms from social norms and a license to misbehave.
After the iconoclasm of the Calvinists in the s, the church had all but ceased to provide commissions for painters.
The Reformed Church allowed money to be spent only for the decoration of church organs.
The vacuum was barely noticed: Portraits, landscapes, seascapes, still-lives, flower painting and genre themes, which had once existed primarily as descriptive elements within history painting, became independent motifs in the early sixteenth century.
In the need to keep step with the rapidly evolving market, some painters developed more efficient techniques to increase their output and maintain affordable prices for a broader consumer base. The invention of tonal painting made the new landscapes [e.Of the many factors that gave rise to secular subjects in art, such as landscape, seascape, still life, and genre painting, the most fundamental was the urbanization of European society during the .
Examine the development of portraiture, still life, landscape, and genre scenes as major subjects for painting, especially within the prosperous art market of the Netherlands. Assess the resurgence of Classicism, especially in the work of seventeenth-century French artists and architects.
Explanation. This early-seventeenth-century poem, "On my First Son," by the Englishman, Ben Jonson, is an elegy, as it commemorates a dead person. Landscape painting, also known as landscape art, is the depiction of landscapes in art – natural scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests, especially where the main subject is a wide view – with its elements arranged into a coherent composition.
In other works, landscape backgrounds for figures can still form an. Neapolitan painting of the early seventeenth century is characterized by dramatic expression, emphatic naturalism, and intense chiaroscuro derived from the profound influence of Caravaggio (–), who spent a number of his later years in the port city.
The Denial of Saint Peter ( John Michael Montias engages in research ranging from trade in art goods in seventeenth-century Holland to industrial policy in contemporary Eastern Europe. He is a professor of economics at Yale University, New Haven.