Political and clinical developments in analytical psychology,
Structuralism and Semiotics Structuralism Structuralism is a way of thinking about the world which is predominantly concerned with the perceptions and description of structures.
At its simplest, structuralism claims that the nature of every element in any given situation has no significance by itself, and in fact is determined by all the other elements involved in that situation. The full significance of any entity cannot be perceived unless and until it is integrated into the structure of which it forms a part Hawkes, p.
Structuralists believe that all human activity is constructed, not natural or "essential. Semiology Semiotics, simply put, is the science of signs.
Semiology proposes that a great diversity of our human action and productions--our bodily postures and gestures, the the social rituals we perform, the clothes we wear, the meals we serve, the buildings we inhabit--all convey "shared" meanings to members of a particular culture, and so can be analyzed as signs which function in diverse kinds of signifying systems.
Linguistics the study of verbal signs and structures is only one branch of semiotics but supplies the basic methods and terms which are used in the study of all other social sign systems Abrams, p.
Binary Opposition - "pairs of mutually-exclusive signifiers in a paradigm set representing categories which are logically opposed and which together define a complete universe of discourse relevant ontological domaine. In such oppositions each term necessarily implies its opposite and there is no middle term" Daniel Chandler.
Symbol - According to Saussure, "words are not symbols which correspond to referents, but rather are 'signs' which are made up of two parts like two sides of a sheet of paper: The distinction is important because Saussure contended that the relationship between signifier and signified is arbitrary; the only way we can distinguish meaning is by difference one sign or word differs from another.
Instead, meaning--the interpretation of a sign--can exist only in relationship with other signs. Selden and Widdowson use the sign system of traffic lights as an example. The color red, in that system, signifies "stop," even though "there is no natural bond between red and stop" Meaning is derived entirely through difference, "a system of opposites and contrasts," e.
Structuralist narratology - "a form of structuralism espoused by Vladimir Propp, Tzvetan Todorov, Roland Barthes, and Gerard Genette that illustrates how a story's meaning develops from its overall structure its langue rather than from each individual story's isolated theme.
To ascertain a text's meaning, narratologists emphasize grammatical elements such as verb tenses and the relationships and configurations of figures of speech within the story" Bressler - see General Resources below. Northwestern UP, Hill and Wang, The Pleasure of the Text.
Structuralism, Linguistics, and the Study of Literature. U of California P, Jefferson, Anne and David Robey. Revolution in Poetic Language and Desire in Language: A Semiotic Approach to Literature and Art.
After the New Criticism. The Raw and the Cooked.
John and Doreen Weighman. Semiotics of Poetry Peirce, Charles. Values in a Universe of Chance: Selected Writings of Charles S. The Morphology of the Folktale.
|Epistemological Pluralism and the Revaluation of the Concrete||Northwestern University This paper reveals a theory of personality based on the formation of intimate relationships during the early stages of a person's lifetime. During infancy, childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood, new needs and tensions arise in the individual.|
U of Texas P, Course in General Linguistics. The Subject of Semiotics. A Survey of Semiotics.This paper reveals a theory of personality based on the formation of intimate relationships during the early stages of a person's lifetime. During infancy, childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood, new needs and tensions arise in the individual.
Social work practitioners should engage in relational interventions by helping the client to see others as distinct, rather than repetitions of others from the past.
Nothing in the life of the mind is random, but, rather, is part of a web of complex associations. Learning Objectives.
This is an intermediate level course.
After completing this course, mental health professionals will be able to: Identify transference and countertransference as they manifest themselves in therapy sessions.
Relational psychotherapy balances the study of structures or patterns of self experience with the study of persons in interpersonal process. Through the interpersonal process of the therapeutic interaction relational therapy strengthens and transforms a clients sense of self, which in turn enhances the individuals well-being in the world.
Carl Rogers: One of the Founding Fathers of Humanism - As one of the founding fathers of humanism, Carl Rogers was very interested in an approach to psychology that had to do with the thoughts and feelings of clients (notice that the word patient is sparsely used).
Psychoanalytic Theory & Approaches History of American Psychoanalytic Theory Psychoanalysis became established in America between World War I and World War II, when Americans traveled to Europe to take advantage of psychoanalytic training opportunities there.